Tag Archives: Science

Mini Bee Symposium – University of Northampton – 13th March 2018

All speakers 20180313_172553_preview

No, not a symposium about tiny Anthophila, but a small get together to discuss bee-related research.  One of the pleasures of my job is hosting visiting scientists from around the world and at the moment I am playing host to three colleagues here in Northampton.   Dr Pablo Gorostiague from the National University of Salta in Argentina is working with me as a visiting postdoc for six months, whilst from the Institute of Zoology at the Chinese Academy of Sciences we have Prof. Chao-Dong “CD” Zhu and Dr Michael Orr here for three days.

So in honour of these visitors, and to introduce them to a wider range of UK bee researchers (some of whom they had corresponded with but never met) I thought it would be fun to organise an informal symposium where people who are (reasonably) nearby could come and present recent bee -related research.

So it was that yesterday a group of about 20 of us spent a great afternoon together listening to 10 short talks.  Here are the presenters and a short description of their presentations:

Steven Falk (independent consultant) discussed “Breaking down barriers to bee identification in Britain” and explained the philosophy behind the structure of his recent Field Guide to the Bees of Great Britain and Ireland.

Stella Watts (Universities of Northampton and Haifa) described her work as a postdoc in Israel examining the structure of plant-pollinator networks centred around some endemic irises.

Chris O’Toole (University of Oxford) dealt with an intriguing phenomenon of what appears to be age-related senility in some Osmia spp.

Pablo Gorostiague told us about his work on bee (and other) pollinators of cacti in his native Argentina.

Ratheesh Kallivalappil (University of Lincoln) discussed his PhD work looking at the decline of global pollinator biodiversity in the Anthropocene.

After a tea break, Stephanie Maher (Anglia Ruskin University) described her PhD work on the nesting ecology of solitary bees in the UK, including a very successful citizen science project.  She argued persuasively for a national database of bee nesting sites.

CD Zhu discussed how modern omics approaches could be integrated into research programmes for understanding the phylogenies and interactions of large clades of species.

Michael Orr talked about the nesting behaviour of some solitary bees of SW North America, and I was surprised to learn that some species can remain in their nests for up to four years before emerging.

In a spontaneous, unscheduled talk Sam Gandy (Universities of Aberdeen and Sussex) told us about research he was involved with that aimed to assess competition between honey bees and bumblebees foraging on lavender.  He did a great job considering he’d not seen the presentation previously, it was emailed to him during the tea break!

Finally I talked about some of our ongoing work assessing the spatio-temporal stability of pollination of an endemic plant by endemic bees in Tenerife.

Following a photo call for all the speakers (see above) we decamped to a local hostelry for beer and food.  Al-in-all a great day of science and networking.  Thanks to all of the speakers and the audience for taking part!

Here are a few more images from the day:

Michael Orr 2018-03-13 16.08.15_preview

Michael Orr in action (I helped to cut that hair!)

Chris OToole 2018-03-13 13.44.37_preview

Chris O’Toole and some of his senile bees

Stella 2018-03-13 13.24.34_previewStella Watts is a blur when presenting her work!

There’s a lot more images on Twitter if you search for #MiniBeeSymposium





Filed under Bees, Biodiversity, University of Northampton

Plant-pollinator networks in the tropics: a new review just published.


As an ecologist who has carried out field work in the temperate zone (UK), the subtropics (Tenerife and South Africa) and the tropics (parts of South America, Africa and Australia)  I’ve always found the idea that the study of ecology can be divided into “tropical” and “non-tropical” a bit odd.  It’s as if the way that the natural world works somehow changes at about 23 degrees north or south of the equator, making things “different” around the equator.  The tropics are a very special, diverse place, it’s true, but so are many places outside the tropics.

With this in mind I was pleased when I was asked by some of my Brazilian colleagues to contribute to a chapter in a new book entitled Ecological Networks in the Tropics. It was an opportunity to review what is known about plant-pollinator networks in the tropics and the ways in which they are very similar to such networks at lower latitudes. Here’s the details of the chapter, followed by the abstract.  If anyone wants a copy please drop me an email:

Vizentin-Bugoni J, PKM Maruyama, CS Souza, J Ollerton, AR Rech, M Sazima. (2018) Plant-pollinator networks in the tropics: a review. pp 73-91 In Dáttilo W & V. Rico-Gray. Ecological networks in the Tropics. Springer.


Most tropical plants rely on animals for pollination, thus engaging in complex interaction networks. Here, we present a global overview of pollination networks and point out research gaps and emerging differences between tropical and non-tropical areas. Our review highlights an uneven global distribution of studies biased towards non-tropical areas. Moreover, within the tropics, there is a bias towards the Neotropical region where partial networks represent 70.1% of the published studies. Additionally, most networks sampled so far (95.6%) were assembled by inferring interactions by surveying plants (a phytocentric approach). These biases may limit accurate global comparisons of the structure and dynamics of tropical and non-tropical pollination networks. Noteworthy differences of tropical networks (in comparison to the non-tropical ones) include higher species richness which, in turn, promotes lower connectance but higher modularity due to both the higher diversity as well as the integration of more vertebrate pollinators. These interaction patterns are influenced by several ecological, evolutionary, and historical processes, and also sampling artifacts. We propose a neutral–niche continuum model for interactions in pollination systems. This is, arguably, supported by evidence that a high diversity of functional traits promotes greater importance of niche-based processes (i.e., forbidden links caused by morphological mismatching and phenological non-overlap) in determining which interactions occur, rather than random chance of encounter based on abundances (neutrality). We conclude by discussing the possible existence and direction of a latitudinal gradient of specialization in pollination networks.


Filed under Bees, Biodiversity, Biogeography, Macroecology, Mutualism, Pollination

Local and regional specialization in plant–pollinator networks: a new study just published

Euphorbia canariensis pollinators 2016-04-29 17 58 00

A fundamental feature of the natural world is that no species exists in isolation: all organisms interact with other organisms during their lives. These interactions take many forms and the outcome varies with the type of interactions. For example predator-prey interactions are clearly negative for the prey species, but positive for the predator. Other interactions result in positive outcomes for both species, including relationships between pollinators such as bees, birds and flies, and the flowers that they pollinate. An important feature of such interactions is how specialized or generalized it is; that is, how many different pollinators are actually involved in pollinating a particular type of flower, or how many types of flower does a specific pollinator visits.

In a newly published study, I have collaborated with colleagues from Denmark and Brazil to assess how local specialization (within a community) relates to regional specialization (across communities) using two separate data sets from the Brazilian rupestrian grasslands and Canary Island/North African succulent scrub vegetation.

Here’s the citation with a link to the paper (drop me a line if you can’t access it and need a PDF):

Carstensen, D.W., Trøjelsgaard, K., Ollerton, J. and Morellato, L.P.C. (2017) Local and regional specialization in plant–pollinator networks. Oikos (in press) doi:10.1111/oik.04436

The abstract is as follows:

“Specialization of species is often studied in ecology but its quantification and meaning is disputed. More recently, ecological network analysis has been widely used as a tool to quantify specialization, but here its true meaning is also debated. However, irrespective of the tool used, the geographic scale at which specialization is measured remains central. Consequently, we use data sets of plant–pollinator networks from Brazil and the Canary Islands to explore specialization at local and regional scales. We ask how local specialization of a species is related to its regional specialization, and whether or not species tend to interact with a non-random set of partners in local communities. Local and regional specialization were strongly correlated around the 1:1 line, indicating that species conserve their specialization levels across spatial scales. Furthermore, most plants and pollinators also showed link conservatism repeatedly across local communities, and thus seem to be constrained in their fundamental niche. However, some species are more constrained than others, indicating true specialists. We argue that several geographically separated populations should be evaluated in order to provide a robust evaluation of species specialization.”

This is what those two different habitats look like:

If you would like more information on plant-pollinator networks, including details of an edible game for Christmas (!), follow this link to the standingoutinmyfield blog.

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Filed under Bees, Biodiversity, Biogeography, Brazil, Macroecology, Mutualism, Pollination, Tenerife

A blog post about our new paper about posting blogs: important for the science community as well as science communication


Scientists blog for many reasons.  Some of these reasons are highly personal, other reasons are purely professional.  For most of us it’s a mix of the two.  But despite all of the scientific blogging going on there’s actually very little been written in the scientific literature about the advantages of blogging for the professional scientist.  As a step towards remedying that situation a group of co-authors and myself have today published a paper entitled “Bringing ecology blogging into the scientific fold: measuring reach and impact of science community blogs“.  It’s published in the open access journal Royal Society Open Science.  Just follow that link and you will be able to read it for free.

I’m rather proud of this paper as it’s a collaboration between active ecological bloggers, most of whom don’t know each other personally. However we share an interest in blogging and in the belief that blogging is a legitimate scientific medium for communication of ideas, data, and professional advice.  That is, blogging for the science community rather than (just) for science communication to the general public.

One of the most pleasing things about this paper is that it received two of the best reviews any of us have ever had in our careers.  The reviewers were incredibly supportive and complimentary, and asked for virtually no changes.  That’s hugely gratifying and suggests to us that we are saying something important; let’s hope the readership likes it as much!

The co-authors, their Twitter handles and links to their blogs are below.  If you click through you’ll see that we have posted coordinated pieces on our blogs about our own reflections on the collaboration and what the paper means to us.

Manu Saunders (@ManuSaunders)  Ecology Is Not A Dirty Word      

Simon Leather (@EntoProf) Don’t Forget the Roundabouts

Jeff Ollerton (@JeffOllerton) Jeff Ollerton’s Biodiversity Blog

Steve Heard (@StephenBHeard) Scientist Sees Squirrel

Meghan Duffy (@duffy_ma) Dynamic Ecology

Margaret Kosmala (@margaretkosmala) Ecology Bits

Terry McGlynn (@hormiga) & Amy Parachnowitsch (@EvoEcoAmy) Small Pond Science


Filed under Biodiversity

The 31st Annual Meeting of the Scandinavian Association for Pollination Ecology (SCAPE 2017) – registration closes 15th September

SCAPE logo

SCAPE is my favourite annual conference by a long margin: small, friendly, welcoming (especially for Master’s and PhD students, and postdocs), and packed full of great science.  It’s the longest-running annual conference of its kind in the world and this year the 31st meeting takes place in Norway; registration closes on 15th September – here’s the link for more information.

So if you are a scientist with an interest in pollination ecology, in all of its varied expressions, consider coming along.  I’ve written a short history of SCAPE here, and these are some links to previous meetings to give you a sense of what to expect:





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Filed under Biodiversity, Pollination

Final thoughts from the International Botanical Congress in Shenzhen

IBC 47 Veg market

Despite my best efforts I’ve not been able to produce a daily post about the International Botanical Congress (IBC) in Shenzhen.  The days were just too busy: too many interesting people to talk to; too many great talks to see; too much cold beer to be drunk and tasty food to be eaten; and a too-comfortable bed to collapse into at the end of a long, long day.

It’s Sunday today, and the closing ceremony took place yesterday afternoon.  Speeches were made and thanks offered to our Chinese hosts.  It was a fitting end to what has been a truly remarkable conference, the like of which I’ve never previously experienced, and may never again.  It wasn’t just the scale of it – almost 7,000 delegates giving and attending hundreds of talks – but just the very positive buzz of all of these plant scientists determined to make a difference in some way, through their research and education and outreach work.  That’s been the main theme of this conference: that a healthy global population living in a safe and sustainable world is not possible without plants, and to achieve that we must take the plant sciences very, very seriously indeed.  Plants are the foundation of our civilization and the key to surviving the future.

Anyone who doubts that last sentence should have joined us the other day when we made a short visit to a local fruit and vegetable market.  Beautifully displayed on low stalls was botanical produce that reflected both thousands of years of Chinese cultivation and crop breeding, including food plants not very familiar in the west……

IBC 45 Veg market.jpg

IBC 46 Veg market

….together with the produce that’s only been a part of the Chinese diet for a few hundred years, or less, following its introduction from Europe and the Americas, including current staples such as chillies, squashes and potatoes:

IBC 43 Veg market

Global movements of food crops have enriched diets and supported the populations of entire countries: most of the fruit and vegetables that we eat in the UK, for instance, are not even native to Europe let alone the British Isles.

During this trip to the market I was able to add two new plant families to my life list of those I’ve eaten.  They were Sauruaceae (the leaves and rhizomes of Houttuynia cordata) and Portulacaceae (Portulaca oleracea being a common leaf vegetable in some parts of the world, but not the UK).  That brings my current total of pant families I’ve eaten to more than 90.

That theme of the importance of plants was codified by the launch at the IBC of the Shenzhen Declaration on Plant Sciences, on which the Natural History Museum’s Sandy Knapp has been an author; hopefully you can read the seven priorities in this image:

IBC 40 Shenzhen Declaration

The Shenzhen Declaration provides both a rallying call for plant scientists to convince their governments of the importance of their work, but also highlights how seriously China takes the whole concept of sustainable development.  It’s remarkable (but actually perfectly logical) that such a fast developing country should be the prime mover in the area of green sustainability.  Only time will tell if they are doing enough, at a pace that will make a difference.

There were a couple of awards made at the closing ceremony, including the first ever Shenzhen Award to Prof. Peter Raven, 81 years old and still going strong.  Earlier in the week a colleague introduced me to this giant of botany and evolutionary biology, and I got to shake his hand, feeling a bit awe struck I have to admit!

IBC 40 Peter Raven.jpg

The Engler Medal went to Chinese botanist Prof. Hong Deyuan for his systematic work on paeonies and other Chinese plants:

IBC 40 Hong Engler.jpg

So, that’s it for another six years.  IBC 20 will be held in Rio in 2023; the Shenzhen Congress has set a high bar, but we’re sure that Brazil can match it!

IBC 39 Rio

Today I’m off to Fairy Lake Botanical Garden to do a bit of exploring with some colleagues, then I fly home tomorrow evening.  It’s been a wonderful trip but I’m looking forward to seeing my family, our cats, and how our garden has changed in the short time I’ve been away.  My sincerest thanks to all the friends and colleagues who have made this such a stimulating and extraordinary conference.  Especial thanks to our Chinese hosts who made us feel so welcome, and the IBC Awards Committee for providing me with an “Excellent Scholar” award to enable me to take part. Over and out from Shenzhen.

IBC 37 - Jeff





Filed under Biodiversity

Wampee are not the only fruit: more from the International Botanical Congress

IBC 27.jpg

It’s been a busy couple of days so this is my first chance to post a brief update on what is happening at the International Botanical Congress in Shenzhen, China.  Not only have there been great talks to attend, but it’s been an all-too-rare chance to catch up with friends and colleagues, some of whom I’ve not seen for years.  Also I’ve been able to meet researchers whose work I know well but whom I’ve never met.  And I’m still trying to finish my talk for Saturday…..  So here’s a few glimpses of what’s been going on, in no particular order.

On Tuesday I attended two fascinating symposia, one on the patterns and outcomes of pollen transfer between species in plant communities.  The first talk was this one by the great Chinese pollination ecologists Shuang-Quan Huang.  I’ve corresponded with Shuang for years but the IBC has been my first chance to meet him.

IBC 30 - Shuang

That was in the morning; in the afternoon I went to a session on my favourite plant family, the Apocynaceae, organised by my colleague and collaborator Sigrid Liede-Schumann.  This included some great talks on the evolutionary relationships within the family, and patterns of diversity in poorly studied parts of the world.  There were two talks on my favourite genus in my favourite family, Ceropegia. The first, by Sharad Kambale, was about the endemic species found in India, followed by a second on the pollination biology of the genus by Annemarie Heiduk.  Anne’s talk complements my own on Saturday, and in fact she, Sigrid and I are co-authors on a paper on the genus that, we heard on Monday, has just been accepted by the journal Flora.  Here’s a shot of the Apocynaceae participants; Anne is far right with Sigrid next to her.  It’s a sobering thought that Sigrid and I have been collaborating for over 20 years……:

IBC 28 - Apocs

Of the keynote lectures I’ve seen in the last couple of days, I was particualrly inspired by Loren Rieseberg’s over view of plant evolution in the Anthropocene.  This is surely the only talk this week, or at any IBC, that ended with a couple of episodes of a children’s animated series about nature!  Loren’s work with Scout and the Gumboot Kids was inspired by him becoming a father and recognising that the most important contribution he will ever make is the legacy he leaves as a teacher of the next generations, rather than as a researcher (though his research work is very significant!)

I also enjoyed Peter Wyse Jackson’s talk on “International developments and responsibilities for the botanical community in plant conservation”.  Peter very eloquently set out the case for how plant conservationists can lead the way in achieving many of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, but the key must be to include local communities within projects and not exclude them.  It reflected a theme that’s running right through the conference, that plant science has a vital role to play in making our civilization sustainable: plants are absolutely key to this:


IBC 32 - Development goals

After all, humans are just Super Monkeys in evolutionary terms….

IBC 31 - Supermonkey.jpg

…and monkeys need plants, especially fruit such as these delicious wampee (Clausena lansium) a new one for me that I’d never tried before.  It’s in the same family as oranges and other citrus fruits (Rutaceae) but has a texture more like a grape and a sour, slightly phenolic taste:

IBC 34 - Fruit.jpg

In these blog posts I’m trying to give just a few personal insights into what’s been going on, but there’s much that I’ve missed: on any given day there’s as many as 28 separate symposia going on at the same time!  No wonder then that the IBC has its own daily newspaper:

IBC 36 - Congress news.jpg

Now, I must get back to writing that talk….



Filed under Biodiversity

Highlights from Monday at the International Botanical Congress

IBC 21

On the way in to the congress venue yesterday morning I spotted a small yellow bird lying dead on the street; turned out to be a Japanese White-eye, a first for me.  Can I count dead birds on my life list?

The scientific programme for the day got off to a great start with a keynote by Michael Donoghue on the value of model lineages for really exploring plant evolution in depth.  He focused on the work of his group on the genus Viburnum, and it has a masterclass in presenting a lot of complex work in an engaging and contextual way, telling a great story.

These photos tell you about the scale of these keynotes and the need for video feeds of the presentation.  It’s all working well though:

IBC 23

IBC 24

In the afternoon things got a little more intimate when the themed symposia started.  For now I’ve decided not to try to move between sessions to cherry pick talks I really want to hear and instead stick with the single sessions.  The first of these was on “Pollination by non-flying mammals” and a series of speakers outlined some of the diversity of these animals and how flowers are adapted to be pollinated by them.  As camera traps have become more widely used, especially at night using infra red lighting, the range of mammals known to pollinate flowers has increased and now includes species such as genets and elephant shrews.  The latter wins the prize for outrageous cuteness!  Check out some of the images of these pollinators at this BBC site.

That session ended at 3.30pm and there was just time to chat to a few people and grab a quick coffee before I was speaking at 4.00pm in the “Evolution of floral traits” session, in a vast hall that seemed mainly empty but actually probably had a couple of hundred people in it:

IBC 25

My talk was on “Spatio-temporal stability of an island endemic plant-pollinator interaction involving floral colour change”. It seemed to be well received though in retrospect I probably focused too much on the pollinator side of what’s happening in our Tenerife study system.  The talks that came after were a great mix of scales and approaches but by 6.00pm the jetlag had caught up with me and I couldn’t stop myself falling asleep towards the end of a fascinating talk by Adam Roddy (sorry Adam!)  That was bad enough: then I started snoring and was jerked awake when Kathleen Kay punched me (thank’s Kathleen!)  Oh the science shame….

Much chatting afterwards then whisked off to dinner by some Chinese and American colleagues, in the fanciest hotel I’ve ever seen: we were met out of the lift by a gaggle of singing waitresses…. A very pleasant evening.  Back to the hotel by 9.30pm, for a beer and some tv, but could hardly keep my eyes open.  Slept until 6.00am – huzzah – jetlag seems to be over!  Now to breakfast and the start of a new day.  Must finish writing my talk for Saturday though….

IBC 26


Filed under Biodiversity, Pollination

Feeding of the 7000 – the International Botanical Congress steps up a gear

So it turns out that the figure of 6000 delegates at the International Botanical Congress was wrong: it’s actually almost 7000!  The official figure is 6,953 people from “109 countries and regions” [not quite sure what that means].  There are 3,519 talks scheduled to be given by scientists from 85 countries: botany is such an incredibly international venture!  But then you can say that about all of the sciences.

Yesterday the IBC stepped up a gear with some public lectures in the afternoon.  I managed to catch the one by Steve Blackmore on why greening of  cities is so important, and the role of plants in improving urban living through microclimate modification, food production, aesthetic enhancement, etc.  Couldn’t agree more and it’s a recurring theme in the IBC’s exhibition centre.  The Chinese take this very seriously and Shenzhen has some lovely planting and green spaces; I hope to post more images about this later in the week but here’s one example I snapped on the way to the venue yesterday morning:

IBC 18

The other talk I saw was by the venerable Peter Raven, now in his 80s but still going strong and an inspiration to all of us youngsters 🙂  The theme of Peter’s talk was “Saving plants to save ourselves”, and the importance of the plant sciences for sustaining the Earth in the face of exponential population growth:

IBC 11

Peter introduced the “Shenzhen Declaration” –  an open letter or manifesto that challenges international governments to take the plant sciences seriously and provides something of a road map for how that can be done.  More on the Declaration in a later post.

At 6pm there was a welcoming reception to which all delegates were invited; simply getting that many people into one of the halls was a triumph of logistics, but they were also fed and able to drink as much as they wanted, all for free.  Quite a feat to pull off; this shot was taken fairly early on in the proceedings; there was more than twice that number behind me:

IBC 19

Some more photos from the venue, starting with part of the main display about Chinese conservation.  Not sure that a couple of stuffed pandas sends quite the right message, but who am I to quibble:

IBC 15

A behind-the-scenes shot of just part of the registration desk area:

IBC 16

The IBC is the only conference I’ve attended that has a SWAT team with automatic weapons, attack dogs, and riot shields on constant standby.  You can just see some of them at the back of this shot, about as close as I dared photograph…..:

IBC 14

No conference is complete without an irritating robot giving out information in a cutesy, high pitched voice:

IBC 12.jpg

So the main scientific programme starts today; I’ll be going to a couple of the keynote lectures in the morning, then there’s a session after lunch on “Pollination by non-flying mammals” that I’m looking forward to.  I’m then speaking at 4pm in the session on “Evolution of floral traits”, discussing some of the work that we have been doing in Tenerife.  Wish me luck!

The session I’m talking in ends at 6pm.  I’m still jet lagged and have been up since 4am so at that point I’ll be ready for a beer and some food!



Filed under Biodiversity

6000 scientists can’t be wrong: the International Botanical Congress 2017


A late afternoon flight from Heathrow got me to Beijing International Airport just in time for me to enjoy a nine hour delay in my connecting flight to Shenzhen in southern China.  I finally arrived at my hotel at 2:15am, exhausted and sweaty in the 30 degree night time heat.  The one consolation is the the hotel was short of rooms so upgraded me to a suite the size of a small city, with a shower like a tropical rainstorm.  Perfect to wash off the dirt of travelling before collapsing into bed.

Why am I here and why is the hotel short of rooms?  Because 6000 scientists have descended on Shenzhen for the 19th International Botanical Congress (IBC).  The IBC is a six-yearly event that rotates around the world; I attended in 1999 in St Louis and 2005 in Vienna, but missed Melbourne in 2011.  At this IBC I’m giving two talks, one at the beginning and one at the end of the conference.  More on that later in the week.

Six thousand botanists need a big conference venue and this morning, after a late breakfast, I strolled up to the convention centre where it’s being held.  It’s enormous, the scale of the thing is overwhelming.  I wandered around whilst they were getting ready for registration opening this afternoon and took some images on my phone.


There are some fabulous displays of living plants, including this one at the main entrance:


These are attracting pollinators: in 10 minutes I counted lots of honey bees, one butterfly, at least two species of wasps, and a large carpenter bee (Xylocopa sp.) visiting flowers.  I only managed to photograph the first two though:



On the way back to my hotel I gatecrashed an international turtle expo.  Who knew turtles were such a big thing in China….?

OK, that’s all for now: I have to head back to the convention centre to register, so I’ll leave you with the view I’m seeing from where I’m writing this.  Shenzhen is quite a place and I’ll write more about it later in the week:



Filed under Bees, Biodiversity, Butterflies, Honey bees, Pollination, Urban biodiversity, Wasps